Atom(see periodic table)
Electric chargeMassQuarks
Protons+11up(+2/3)up(+2/3)down(-1/3)
Neutrons01up(+2/3)down(-1/3)down(-1/3)
Electrons-10
Isotopes
Same atomic number(proton number)
different neutron number
different mass(protons+neutrons)
Protium:Hydrogen-1,11H,1H
Deuterium:Hydrogen-2,21H,2H
Tritium:Hydrogen-3,31H,3H
Ions,cations and anions
Ionis an atom
or group of atoms
it has lost/gained one or more electrons
Cationit has lost one or more electronsit has a net positive charge
H+:1p+0e
Anionit has gained one or more electronsit has a net negative charge
H-:1p+2e
Electric charge
physical property of matter
it causes to experience a force in an electromagnetic field
There are two types:positive and negative
If there is not electric charge:neutral
Electric charge is quantized
The elementary charge is(e):The electric charge of a proton or electron
The SI unit is the coulomb(C)
1 C=6.242x1018e=6 242 000 000 000 000 000 elementary charge(electrons)
Like(have the same sign)charges repel one another
Unlike(have different signs)attract each other
Electric current
It is a flow of electric charge
Charge carrier
Solid metalelectrons
Electrolyteions
Semiconductorelectrons and electron-holes
Plasma(ionised gas)electrons and ions
Charge carrier
I=Q/t
The SI unit is the ampere
1A=1C/1s
I is measured using a device called an ammeter
The direction of conventional current is the same direction as positive charges flow
types of electric current
Alternating current(AC)the movement of electric charge periodically reverses directionThe usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave
In Spain is a sine wave of 50 Hz or c/s and 230 V
Direct current(DC)the movement of electric charge is in one direction only
Superconductors,conductors,semiconductors and insulators
Superconductorszero electrical resistance
expulsion of magnetic flux fields
Only when cooled below a critical temperature
ConductorsAllow the flow of an electrical current
SemiconductorsThey are poor conductors
With doping or gating can to behave like conductors
InsulatorsVery little electric current flow through it
Effects of electric current
HeatJoule effect:P=R·I2and E=P·t
High-voltage transmission of electricity
electric cooktop,Electric iron,electric heater,electric fuse
LightJoule Effect(heat):Incandescent and halogen bulbs
Gases(ionization):fluorecent tubes and CFL
Semiconductors(Recombination of electron and electron holes):LEDs
MotionMotors
MagneticElectromagnets,electric bell,Motors,Generators
Chemicalelectrolysis,electroplating(Chromium,Nickel,Zinc,silver plating)
Electric circuits
Electrical Sources:GeneratorsBatteries
Alternators and dynamos
Photovoltaic solar cells
Hydrogen cells
Load:ReceptorsResistors,bulbs,motors ...
Controlling DevicesSwitch,changover switch,push button
Protection DevicesCircuit breakers and Earth or Ground fault Protection
Conducting Path:Conductors
Types of electric circuits
Open CircuitClosed Circuit
Combinations Series-Parallel
Short circuit
Lights switch from one, two and three locations


Vocabulary


  • electrical energy=energía eléctrica
  • mechanical energy=energía mecánica
  • kinetic energy=energía cinética
  • potential energy=energía potencial
  • thermal energy=energía térmica
  • -------------------------------------------
  • receiver=receptor
  • electrical device=dispositivo eléctrico
  • electrical appliance=aparato eléctrico
  • lamp or light bulb=bombilla o lámpara
  • fluorescent lamp=lámpara fluorescente
  • magnet=imán
  • compass=brujula
  • battery=batería o pila
  • electric cell=célula voltaica o pila
  • socket=base de enchufe
  • plug(with two or three pins)=enchufe o conector
  • wire=cable,conductor eléctrico
  • cable=cable
  • motor=motor
  • generator=generador
  • dynamo(direct but pulsating current generator)=dinamo
  • alternator(alternating currrent generator)=alternador
  • electromagnetic induction=inducción electromagnética
  • electromagnet=electroimán
  • engine=máquina
  • relay=relé
  • fuse=fusible
  • LED(light emitting diode)=led
  • ------------------------------------------
  • passive components=componentes pasivos
  • resistor(electrical device)=resistencia
  • capacitor=condensador
  • inductor=inductor,bobina
  • transformer=transformador
  • ------------------------------------------
  • voltmeter=voltímetro
  • ammeter=amperímetro
  • ------------------------------------------------------
  • direct current(D.C.)=corriente continua(C.C.)
  • alternating current(A.C.)=corriente alterna(C.A.)
  • power stations=centrales eléctricas
  • efficiency value of A.C.=valor eficaz de la C.A.
  • series circuit=circuito serie
  • parallel circuit=circuito paralelo
  • mixed circuit=circuito mixto
  • ------------------------------------------------------
  • magnitude=magnitud
  • unit=unidad
  • Electric or electrical charge=carga eléctrica
  • coulomb=culombio
  • Electrical current or electric current or amperage=Intensidad de la corriente eléctrica
  • Ampere or Amp=Amperio
  • Resistance=Resistencia
  • ohm=ohmio
  • Voltage or potential difference=voltaje,tensión o diferencia de potencial
  • volt=voltio
  • Energy=Energía
  • Joule=julio
  • KWH=Kilowatt-hour
  • Power=Potencia
  • Watt=vatio
  • electric or electrical switch=interruptor
  • SPST switch(Single pole single throw)=interruptor
  • SPDT switch(Single pole double Throw):
    changeover switch
    2-way switch(UK)
    3-way switch(US)=conmutador simple
    DPST switch(double pole single throw)=interruptor doble
    DPDT switch(double pole double throw)
    reversing switch
    Intermediate or crossover switch(UK)
    4-way switch(US)=conmutador de cruce
    push button=pulsador
    push-to-make switch=pulsador normalmente abierto
    push-to-break switch=pulsador normalmente cerrado
    SPDT relay=relé con un solo conmutador
  • DPDT relay=relé con dos conmutadores
  • -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • electric or electrical circuit=circuito
  • insulator=aislante
  • conductor=conductor
  • semi-conductor(silicon and germanium)=semiconductor(silicio y germanio)
  • electrical conductivity=conductividad eléctrica
  • electricity=electricidad
  • magnetism=magnetismo
  • -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • molecule=molécula
  • atom=átomo
  • elementary particle=partícula elemental
  • nucleus=nucleo
  • proton=protón
  • electron=electrón
  • neutron=neutrón
  • ion=ión
  • cation(positively charged ion)=catión
  • anion(negatively charged ion)=anión
  • positive charge=carga positiva
  • negative charge=carga negativa
  • neutral charge=carga neutra