Structures activities INTRANET 1 / 2

structures

Questions of structures

Romanesque Architecture

barrel vault or Roman vault
groin vault
buttress
Examples of Romanesque and Norman architecture: Castles, fortifications, monasteries, abbeys, churches and cathedrals (in Europe and Spain)

Gothic Architecture

ribbed vaults
net vault
fan vault
pointed arches
cluster columns
flying buttress
towers and spires
piers with pinnacles or statues
stained glass windows
rose windows
Examples of Gothic architecture: Monasteries, abbeys, palaces, castles, universities churches and cathedrals (in Europe and Spain)


Structural elements or members in a structure

Vertical elements

Pillars
columns
pilaster
pier

Linear horizontal elements

beams
Joists
Girders
Lintels

Curved elements

arch
vault (barrel vault, groing vault, rib vault, net vault, fan vault)
dome

Elements to hold up the loads or arches and vaults

buttress
flying buttress

Vertical elements that transfer loads to the ground

Load-bearing walls
Retaining walls

Concrete slabs

Joists
Blocks
Reinforced concrete surface

Foundations*

footing
Plinths
Shallow foundations
Piles

Linear elements to resist tension stress

Suspenders,tension rods,tie,brace


Bridges

    Types of bridges
  • Suspension Bridges
  • Cable-Stayed Bridges
  • Arch Bridges
  • Beam Bridges
  • Cantilever Bridges
  • Truss Bridges
    Longest Bridges
  • World (Suspension, cable-stay, arch, beam)
  • Spain
    Murcia's Bridges
    Tacoma's Bridge


Skyscrapers or Towers

    How to build a skyscraper
    Tallest skyscrapers
  • World
  • Spain
    Murcia's skyscrapers
    Casa nueve piso de Murcia


  1. Name of the stresses induced in the beam and slab because of the application of loads perpendicular to its principal axis(It is natural)
  2. Name of the stresses induced in beams
  3. In a beam. Why do we make a hinged support and the other is a roller.
  4. In a single supported beam (SSB) for thermal stresses not to develop, we use ( roller or hidged support)
  5. What types of stress support a horizontal element.
  6. What happens if a column is not perfectly homogeneous or straight or the loading is not concentric (it eccentric)
  7. When a member, such as a column, is subjected to axial compression and if the member is slender (at least one of its dimensions is 1/10 or less, of the other two)(it indicates failure)
  8. In a reinforced concrete beam. Which elements support tension and compression.
  9. In a single supported beam. Which type of stress support the upper region of the beam. And the lower region.
  10. In a cantilever beam. Which type of stress support the upper region of the beam. And the lower region.
  11. Masonry ( stone, brick, blockwork and with lime, cement or no mortar) has been used in structures for thousands of years. What types of stress support.
  12. In a post and lintel system. Which is the lintel the two upright members or the horizontal member across their top surfaces.
  13. In a Neolithic architecture like Stonehenge we can see the post and lintel system. But in a Greek temple, what elements are posts.
  14. Stone or brick are weak in tensile trength (inelastic and brittle). So they can be used for short lintels or beams. What can we use for long structural openings. Types of materials. If we use stones.
  15. Which element is used in classical architecture to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of a wall.
  16. What is the difference between a pier and a column?
  17. What is the difference between a pier and a dock? (British and American English)
  18. What is the difference between a column and a pile?
  19. In the design or a arch.Why do you need tie rods between the supports or heavy abutments or buttresses.
  20. What of this deep foundation is a watertight structure built above the ground level and then sunken into the ground: Pile foundation, Pier foundation, Caisson.
  21. What of this deep foundation is a cylindrical column of large diameter and typically dug out and cast in place: Pile foundation, Pier foundation, Caisson.
  22. What of this deep foundation is a cylindrical column driven by a piledriver: Pile foundation, Pier foundation, Caisson.
  23. Which structural member may rest of beams or walls, but no usually columns: Girders or Joists
  24. Which structural member is a larger beam: Girder or joists.
  25. What is the simplest form of a vault.
  26. Name of the vault which is the result of two intersecting barrels vaults.
  27. Which types of vault have been used in Romanesque architecture (and they date back to Ancient Egypt and Roman times)
  28. Rib vault can be found in Romanesque or Gothic architecture?
  29. Name of an arched structure that extends from the upper portion of a wall to a pier in order to convey to the ground the lateral forces from vaulted ceilings.
  30. What is the name of the walls that provide structural support and they transferred the load to the foundation.( They are not curtain walls or room dividers)
  31. What is the name of the walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally (to restrain soil to a near-vertical slope)
  32. What is the name of the part of the structure that transfers the total loads from the structure to the soil and provides stability to the structure.
  33. Name of the foundation that rely both on end bearing and skin friction (exception: bearing pile)
  34. Make a drawing that shows a suspender (a hanging cable) in a bridge. What stress do they support.
  35. Romanesque or Gothic Architecture: small windows, rose windows, barrel vault, flying buttress, groing vault, rib vault, massive load-bearing walls
  36. Which material is used as a beam (not a lintel): wood, stone, steel, reinforced concrete. Why?
  37. What are the longest types of bridges?
  38. What is the longest-spanning bridge in the world?
  39. Romans built bridges out of stone. What type of bridge?. Why?
  40. What is the only two dimensional polygon that if consttructed of rigid members with nidged corners is absolutely fices in shape up to the compressive nd tensile limits of its members.
  41. A sport car produces a "vacuum" beneath the car so there is a suction force that keeps the car sticking to the ground. What is the other cause to the stability of the racing car?